Module II

Leadership, Followership, Management

Learning Objectives

Module II concentrates on the following course outcomes—

1.    Analyze the components of the nursing management process within a clinical context.

The management process of planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and staffing is introduced. The process is used by leaders and managers in the performance of positions. The process is also used as the guiding framework for this course.

2.    Critique the professional nurse’s leadership role in guiding a diverse care team.

The nurse’s leadership role is described and explored. The emphasis is on the leadership role of the professional staff nurse as well as other levels of nursing leadership in an organization.

3.    Integrate management concepts into the competent provision of client care.

The nurse’s management role is also described in the module. The differentiation between leadership and management tasks and behaviors is explored. The emphasis is on the leadership and management role of the professional staff nurse as well as other levels of nursing management in an organization.

Reading Assignment

Sullivan: Chapters 4, 7, 17

Overview

Leading, managing and following are integral parts of professional practice. Constructive behaviors associated with these concepts will influence patient care and organizational outcomes, regardless of titles. Leadership and management behaviors can be learned. It is important to recognize that leadership and management are two different concepts. One can be a manager and not be a leader, and vice versa. Leadership behaviors used by managers greatly affect followers and may be positive or negative. Both leaders and managers use power and influence to accomplish organizational goals. Dynamic leaders are those who mentor, coach, respect and positively contribute to the development of others. Think about people that you have known who are positive leaders, what characteristics and behaviors do they exhibit to influence others. What types of communication styles do leaders typically use?

There are a number of theories of leadership, managementand motivation that may be applied within an organization. Some of the common leadership theories include: Transformational Theory, Situational Contingency Theory, and motivation theories such as Herzberg’s, Maslow’s and Expectancy and Goal Setting Theory. In organizational behavior, there has been much research over the years in relation to what motivates people with the conclusion that there are two broad categories of motivation: 1) content and 2) process. Content theories are referred to as “needs theories” as they explain the specific factors that motivate people. These theories give insight into the question of “what drives people.” Process theories are also called cognitive theories and focus on what cognitive thinking motivates or drives the individual to initiate, redirect or halt behavior (Borkowski, 2005). Motivation is about providing an organization and culture that satisfies both of the employees intrinsic and extrinsic needs.

There are a number of concepts available related to leadership, management and organizational behavior. Power, one such concept, is used in the organization to influence the behavior of others. Yoder-Wise describe five behaviors that nurses use in relation to power related to political and professional practice. These include: 1) apathy, buy-in, self-interest, political sophistication and leading the way. These power related behaviors can positively or negatively influence organizational behavior. Empowerment has received much recognition in the healthcare community in the past two decades. It relates to personal and professional power or control for practice. It is seen in conjunction with autonomy, shared leadership, decentralized organizations and those with Magnet status.

Clinical leadership offers many challenges; one is to recognize the effect of personal and professional needs that motivate staff to perform job duties and reach desired outcomes. Finding out what motivates staff fosters empowerment through approval, satisfaction, accomplishment, and self-esteem, which fuel individual motivation. Individuals bring to the workplace different needs and goals, the type and intensity of motivators vary among employees. Motivated employees are more likely to be productive than are non-motivated workers. This is one reason that motivation is an important aspect of enhancing employee performance. It is imperative with the constant change within the health care settings with cost containment, cutbacks and reimbursement. As a leader much of the success in directing or delegating to staff less qualified than will depend on people-management skills—your ability to motivate those around you. The most successful motivators often become the most successful leaders. They are the leaders who cause things to happen with their ability to influence others. Methods used to motivate others are to establish credibility. Follow up on problems and when you keep all promises your credibility becomes firmly established. Be a role model by setting the tone and pace for your team. You set the standard for ethical behavior and support the view of what is important. Take an interest in others, as one of the greatest motivators is caring. Make sure it is genuine interest. Overzealous or insincere praise is as meaningless as no praise at all. Reward positive behaviors, which only reinforce the behavior and set the example for others. Share decision making with the staff. Staffs perform better when they feel they are contributing to a team effort, making a difference and work better when they are included. Offer constructive criticism. Sometimes it is necessary to offer constructive criticism to improve performance. Criticism should be directed toward the observed behavior and not toward the individual and should be in private.

Classic management functions include: planning, organizing, directing, controlling and staffing. Within these four broad categories are more specific management and organizational concepts as are pointed out in the Module I Power Point presentation. It is important to know the four broad categories of management. Contemporary management is outcome oriented and supports the missions and values of an organization. Key management functions to be familiar with include recognition, delegation, decision making, reporting, budgeting, problem solving and critical thinking. Each of these activities will be addressed in this course.

Assignment questions: Post answers in Forums Module II. See calendar for due date.

1. Select one of the leadership, management or motivational theories from the readings and discuss how you think it applies within the organization.

2. Describe your own leadership behaviors. Discuss leadership behaviors that you most admire.

3. Discuss leadership traits that you would like to acquire.

4. What are differences in management roles and leadership roles differ?

5. Discuss various types of power seen in an organization and which are advantageous and which are detrimental.

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